Clayton Christensen: “Where does Growth come from?” | Talks at Google


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100 Replies to “Clayton Christensen: “Where does Growth come from?” | Talks at Google”

  1. Milan Karakas says:

    I can't watch this video. Google is theaf, stealing from my youtube revenue. Shame on google!

  2. Kirill Khvenkin says:

    Thank you, Google, for temporarily doing a good job.

  3. ZENNology of Everything says:

    amazing man! thanks for the information!! Keep coming back with Golden knowledge nuggets!

  4. Aktien mit Kopf says:

    great talk, great insights!

  5. MJ Skowronek says:

    Clay is one of the few people at Harvard Business school who I don't consider to be full of hot air. 🙂

  6. Luigi Poderico says:

    Are the projected slides available for download?

  7. Alex Cantu says:


  8. Michael Hasenstein says:

    Perfect ending. Worth watching just for the last 4 minutes.

  9. SpaceExplorer says:

    Best Texans GM ever

  10. S P says:

    He is such a humble guy. Every interview/session of his, he make sure he greats/appreciate the host.

  11. Jon Wise says:

    At 1:10:25 he says that the theory predicts that other car companies are either going to kill Tesla or acquire it. But it's really hard to see a scenario where that can happen. Just to fulfill the car battery supply alone, they would have build a better gigafactory, which can also produce more electrical batteries than the rest of the world's factories combined, in order to compete with prices (economies of scale). And this is just one small detail in a large panorama of what Tesla does. Another small detail is that in future one can imagine great integration of electrical products (like Solar Roofs and electrical cars) made by Tesla. Are bigger companies also going to start to start a Solar panel company and then integrate it with their electric car products?

    There are many unique tactical moves that Tesla made which are going to be hard to repeat, if any competition wants to kill Tesla. And it's hard to imagine current management selling Tesla.

  12. Benedikt Ummen says:

    He's wrong about Porsche having spent 1bn and having an electric luxury car market ready. They're about to spend that money on R&D, and the presumably USD 150k car will hit markets earliest 2018 (probably later). I agree with his remarks about China & BYD Auto, though.

  13. Aida Voutsas says:

    A revolution in the fundamentals of Marketing ,unfortunately these theories will sustain powerful monopolies rather than help potential micro companies become great companies.

  14. Rupaal Singh says:

    Hats off to u sir…. U sir are inspirational

  15. Rowan Gontier says:

    The talk reminds me of the importance of long term thinking. However, immensely successful disruptors can give the wrong impression about the realities of changing course. For the most part, the companies and individuals that stick to their knitting, and adapt over time, are the ones who are successful.

  16. Gregory Manning says:

    Contribution mom consumer apmigd stock.

  17. kaiwen123 says:

    very inspiring!

  18. Leo Sousa says:


  19. Michael Moser says:

    Great talk, now at 46:08 he says that companies can survive disruption by setting up independent divisions with new processes for producing new, potentially disrupting products. Interesting if Google has set up Alphabet Inc. based on this advice, or was that earlier ? Is Alphabet now seen as a successful initiative, or is it too early to judge ?

  20. Christopher Okhravi says:

    Super interesting. Added some books to the to-read shelves 🙂

  21. SweetHandsPlayz // SweetHandsVlogs says:

    Hey guys I am reaching for 30 subs by 12:00 pm tomorrow! If you wouldn't mind why not help! Thx

  22. Andrew Mbuya says:

    Interesting thought process.

  23. Deborah Lee says:

    One of the most insightful yet humble speakers I've seen in a long time.

  24. Colin Warn says:

    14:30 "There's gotta be a job out there for which they hire a milkshake to solve, and we need to understand what the job is."


  25. Michael Pearson says:

    It's a theory about competitive response. In some instances, it takes the form of the competition not caring and hence not responding until it's way too late. In other instances, like in the Uber example, it is laws and infrastructure that keep the big guys from being able to respond in time.

    In the Tesla example, the job that needed to be done at first was that some of the hippies got rich and needed a way to show how much they loved the trees. The more expensive and impressive, the better. Tesla was competing against non-consumption in that way. Their reputation is what has enabled them to be successful up until now. But, even though the competition may have been skeptical at first, they are now jealous of the attention and actually doing something to move into that market, and Tesla has some great risk ahead of it.

    But how fast will their response be? The infrastructure and research is difficult to catch up with, so Tesla might survive after all. Will the other car companies build their own Gigafactories? I don't think Tesla will sell batteries to them, because they can't even meet their own demand yet.

    The basic principle is that startups need to build momentum in order to survive. If they have enough momentum, it will carry them into new markets and clear anything out of their path, including the monolithic establishments. In order to build momentum, they need room first.

    So the time that a startup has to obtain critical mass or escape velocity would be something like
    T_C < T_A + T_J
    T_A is the time it takes for the establishment to become aware that they are threatened
    T_J is the time it takes for them to adjust their infrastructure to be able to handle the threat

    Critical velocity is achieved when the startup is growing too fast for the future iterations of T_A and T_J to ever be lower again.

    That's the basic principle, I think. These are pretty loose terms, but this is how I think about it. The real value I have gained from the "Innovator's Dilemma" is the idea that the time it takes for big companies to become aware of a threat can be surprisingly long. The more timid people are, the more they depend on metrics and short-term assurances. When an entity only has things to lose, they develop a certain fear that can lead them to overvalue guaranteed, short-term success.

    There are some industries that attract disruption more than others because T_A and T_J are so high. Education is one of them. Space is another. The car industry. Banks. Basically, every entrenched institution that tends to attract insecure people who crave guaranteed outcomes. Those are, ironically, the industries that are at the highest risk of being disrupted.

    But some of them are protected by the general population. The consumers have to believe that the product that the establishment offers isn't made of magic. With space, it took some time for people to believe that a private company could do a good job. With electric cars, people believe(d) that gasoline cars are the sacred way of moving, and nothing could ever be better. With education, people's superstitions are obvious.

    These can be factored into some kind of relation that gives the expected amount of time for an industry to be disrupted, but it's a little complicated and I don't have the time to figure that out right now. It would be interesting, though.

    When all is said and done, I think that the way Elon Musk has gone about it might end up being studied in textbooks. He managed to stay under the radar for a few years before the auto industry started to actually take him seriously. What's the difference between that and going after the rebar? The number of cars he has produced before being taken seriously has been significant. We will see if it is enough to let Tesla scale up and beat the rest of the auto industry before they get there in time to stop it.

  26. Ignacio Rangel says:

    Profesor Christensen is like the economics profesor in "Ferris Bueller's Day Off", he could probably learn a lesson on monotonic speech, however this talk is brilliant.

  27. Julia Heartlet says:

    what an idiot

  28. Ed Cruz says:

    It was worth my time – every minute of it, but the last 4 minutes are transformational – thank you

  29. golden1a says:

    Great talk! Thanks for sharing!

  30. Rick D. says:

    A theory is a set of principles or axioms we use to understand or predict behavior.
    Some of these axioms are known to be incomplete.

  31. Michael Reid says:

    These "Talks at Google" are making a big impact on my life. Now I have to read all his books!

  32. yekeyeke says:

    a great talk. Really admire Prof. Christensen. The question about Tesla, Uber and iPhone (from 1:08:17) was very interesting. I would like to challenge though, that the success of iPhone is not because it disrupted laptop. At least, within my knowledge, people I know who bought iPhone is not because that iPhone allows them to save on their laptops. iPhone is a product innovation, which simply created a new category (smartphones bundled with API) and there were no incumbents in that category when iPhone was first launched (Nokia and Blackberry had smartphones but their API were just daunting). In the meantime, Huawei, Oppo, Vivo and Xiaomi, all those low-cost brands are killing Apple with disruptive innovation, making the product accessible and affordable to the greater public.

  33. Maxim Harper says:

    Commenting for reference 1:08:18

  34. rcknroll35 says:

    what a great man, great talk, wow

  35. james morrison says:

    "Share the dispair"

  36. Anuj Chawla says:

    God bless you, you are a great man. I am so inspired by you and your books. Thank you.

  37. Zike ZHAO says:

    Just want to know, if the slides are available?

  38. Income Mobile says:

    I'm headed out to hire a milkshake, a nice big hot bagel with cream cheese, and a Snickers bar. Wash it all down with Milkshake #2. That should get the job done!!

  39. Income Mobile says:

    I like Clayton but he shouldn't refer to college students as the rebar of humanity. This is a bit of pandering going on here. The rebar of humanity is the trucker. The carpenter. The trash collector. The factory worker. The pipe fitter. Golfers.

  40. Kenneth Lai says:

    Doesn't feel like a 90 mins video. Wish it could be longer!

  41. Malcolm Manby says:

    We have new thinking to improve our education system, to bring growth to our younger generations yet to come, we must remove the obstacles of the past system that does not help with the growth of the brilliant young brains, that's suppressed.

  42. Malcolm Manby says:

    As an Inventor with many new ideas, like the one that won a National Road Safety Award from the Institute of Highways and Transportation Sponsored by the Mobil Oil Company. The ICI published an article in their plastic Engineering Magazine, which said a bright idea for road safety by Malcolm Manby exploits Daikon to its full potential, this is the material I used for roadlites.

  43. Malcolm Manby says:

    To have a better product than your compactors is from the SOUL not from competition, and this process of creating can coms from the love of humanity, and the direction from an internal power, which is eternal and only need the same power of love.

  44. arkoraa says:

    The man speaks better with half a brain than I do with a healthy brain …

  45. Roving Roller says:


  46. halburd1 says:

    growth comes from cancer, cancer comes from feminism and the leftards

  47. Joshua Remintier says:

    This talk is just absolutely amazing. Insightful and Inspiring 🙂

  48. Sandy says:

    wow this guy is a genius !

  49. Peter Sodhi says:


  50. KC Tung says:

    God bless you Clay. Praying for your cancer treatment.

  51. Rohit Bhardwaj says:

    Great!! Specially the last 5 minutes.
    Just sums up our lives.

  52. budes matpicu says:

    well, the thing is that the nature of these NewEvil internet "businesses" is that one lucky bastard steals it all, takes worldwide market in certain niche (much worse monopolists than all the marxians ever feared)… and most of the time they don't even produce anything, just living off the ad mindfcukers (stolen worldwide ad busines and killed serious journalism in the process)

  53. Clyde Cessna says:

    A great man at his best.

  54. Floyd Maxwell says:

    1:20 "Success is very hard to sustain" And so big companies always turn away from innovation and toward control. Sadly this is evident today in Google (YouTube censorship/demonitizing), in Amazon (removing the dislike vote from comments) and of course with Microsoft with Windows 10, NSA Edition.

  55. kpgrch says:

    ..enormous respect for this person…..

  56. Peter Yao says:

    How can anyone even give this video a thumbs down! Awesome awesome talk

  57. Steveo says:

    Fake News!! ( just kidding)

  58. Steveo says:

    0.5 × speed, you'll see .

  59. RCoronna says:

    This is an amazing talk and a highly recommended watch. True to form, Prof. Clayton is insightful, forward thinking and able to explain the theory and practical applications with clarity. This talk is engaging and offers a different perspective to the one currently being taught and practiced in many organisations. Prof. Clayton is an exceptional intellect and storyteller, his work and thinking is truly inspirational.

  60. 1WaySafe says:

    I am happy I woke up to watch this. you know your stuff.

  61. Realising Potential says:

    Inspiring and insightful

  62. Tobi Kellner says:

    All built on the assumption that growth, on a finite planet, is a good thing, that creating a desire for more consumption should be our goal.
    I have a hunch one day in the not-too-distant future we will look back at this as part of the problem…

  63. Thomas Orlita says:

    just made popcorn for this

  64. Thomas Orlita says:

    I really liked the Milkshake example.

  65. eduardo rojas says:

    08:36 Intro to 4 types of innovation
    09:29 Type 1. Potential innovation
    29:11 Type 2. Sustaining products
    30:40 Type 3. Disruption
    31:45 What is disruption?

  66. akshay R kumar says:

    amazing thoughts, provokes to think in the right way to get ahead in business:)

  67. Philippe Larcher says:

    Milkshake goes with auto gearboxes

  68. fixy1222 says:

    please show the slides or put them in the page !

  69. Ravi kommina says:

    Thought provoking bussines. I am applying those principles in my bussiness. Thank u for ur information.

  70. Christine Esser says:

    Amazing man and amazing speech. Thank you for sharing this.

  71. Justus Kirigua says:

    what a great way to explain how we use the wrong metrics to measure our lives. Amazing!!

  72. Francis K. Ayivi says:

    Very insightful talk. Worth every minute!

  73. Edgar Cerecerez says:

    This is the best marketing advice I’ve absorbed. So much respect for this man.

  74. Edgar Cerecerez says:

    My goodness, this is the most sensible comment thread I’ve seen in YouTube – ever.

  75. gregory nicholas says:

    incorrect usage of "disruption"

  76. Hassan Erwa says:

    Splendid, I like the last four minutes of how to apply the disruptive theory in our family life , …very useful

  77. Christopher Chalfant says:

    Why is it implicitly assumed that consumption/growth is a good thing to pursue and encourage?

  78. APACADEMY says:

    OG Kush does many many jobs well

  79. jigyanshu shrivastava says:

    He is so right about tesla

  80. sam bacha says:

    This guy is absolutely wrong as to the reasons why Japan had a successful post-war economy.
    "Over the period 1961-1991, the Bank of Japan (BOJ) attempted to directly control the volume of commercial bank credit by providing lending targets for selected banks. This policy of "window guidance" (WG) applied to only a subset of lending institutions."

    So basically Japan Central Bank used a Quota-based system (instead of purely Intrest Rate System) for allocating capital availability (read: they got to target sectors with a fixed . amount of loans, i.e. central planning)

    Oh and. guess. what? China is doing the exact same thing today.

  81. Tony BADBOY says:

    Buuuuu alguien puede hacerle subtítulos por favor

  82. Peter Gayed says:

    @21:39 Prof Christensen is my hero. So humble. So insightful. So open & honest. A very special man.

  83. Ishak Sianturi says:

    I think this "Jobs to Be Done" concept is perfectly matched with Less than Zero Moment of Truth (Less than ZMOT) concept

    To add explanation for this phase, Less than Zero Moment of Truth (Less than ZMOT) happens in the very beginning when customers identify their problems or needs or jobs to be done (whether consciously or unconsciously) before searching for the solutions or need fulfillment (ZMOT).

    This phase can happen consciously (i.e when customer carefully consider a vehicle for family transportation) or unconsciously (i.e when customer feel thirsty or hungry while travelling). Phase Less ZMOT will then be continued with phase ZMOT where customers start searching for the solutions or need fulfillment from various sources (offline or online), such as their memories, other's suggestions, search engine, etc.

    In my opinion, understanding the phase of problem or need or job identification (Less than ZMOT) will be very beneficial for research studies because it is the very first moment before companies know what products/ services to offer to customers.

    This phase can be identified through studying consumer behavior, habits and cultures. I think many technologies in the future will further help us to identify customers problems or needs.

    Understanding this phase will help companies to create (innovate) a product/ service for the customers and identify their real competitors that also compete in fulfilling the same needs, hence avoiding Marketing Myopia

    Understanding when customers first identify the problem/ need/ job to be done and the type of solution to fulfill the need are also important. Customers who feel thirsty or hungry while travelling may only rely on information in their memories or available retailers around them (without having to search on the internet) to find foods or drinks. But customers who need a new communication device may have a lot of time to search and research on the internet.


    Ishak Sianturi

  84. Read Books says:

    On 1.5 sounds amazing

  85. T.T F says:

    it is the most insightful speech ever!

  86. Robby Dyer says:

    Some takeaways.
    1. The customer is not the right unit of analysis; the "job" needing to get done by "hiring" a product/service is.
    2. Marketing with such "jobs" in mind is referred to as using potential innovations.
    3. Entrants using disruptive innovations tend to defeat incumbents using sustaining innovations (which are still critically important).
    4. Sustaining innovations make good things better, and are replicative in nature; important but not bulletproof. Often overshoot what the customer actually requires.
    5. Incumbents survive disruptive entrants by also engaging in disruptive innovation on the side with completely independent business units.
    6. Efficiency innovations do more with less, keeping a company competitive and increasing profits with the side effect of reducing jobs.
    7. Outsourcing is easier than increasing profits, so companies outsource to improve their ratio.
    8. Focusing on ratios is detrimental to national economic growth, which is critical for the market to prosper.
    9. Disruptive innovations stimulate economic growth. Companies focusing only on efficiency innovations causes economic recessions.

  87. Brandon Fouts says:

    growth very seldom endless – can't depend on growth forever

  88. Andrew Barker says:

    thank you for making this available

  89. Dr RAMANAND YADAV says:

    Great talk with contemporary insight of the behaviour an economy shows in special cases of cycles.

  90. danny iskandar says:

    His last advise seems to be sacrifice your career in order to save your family and kids … One of the parents has to be a full time parent at home?

  91. James Beuthling says:

    Thank you ! What a great man … very intelligent – Note 1:17:05…forward Truth….

  92. Open House Miami says:

    Needed this talk today. Thank you Prof. Christensen.

  93. kopi bin says:

    Awesome Guru. Where can we locate the presentation? Cant see any of the slides. Thanks Google

  94. neoaureus says:

    The milkshake sentence is by far one of the funniest AND most brilliant things( at the same time) I've heard in my 44 year life…..hats off

  95. neoaureus says:

    I came here to learn about Innovation ….I learnt what life is….watch the last 5 minutes.

  96. neoaureus says:

    I just love this man….for his clarity and courage .

  97. Novihacks says:

    enjoyed the whole talk, thank you for uploading this. Interesting thoughts and a lot ive learned just from this one video.

  98. Michael Hands says:

    Even after his stroke, he speaks more clearly than I, on a good day, can think— And the last 5 minutes.. Wow!

  99. stephen otieno says:

    Oh my goodness, what a resourceful and brilliant prof. I acquired more things in an hour than I ever imagined.

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